Wadjet - Goddess of Lower Egypt. Cobra Goddess of Buto in the Nile Delta, preserver of royal authority over Northern Egypt.
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Friday, 15 November 2019

Wadjet - Goddess of Lower Egypt

Wadjet - Goddess of Lower Egypt

Wadjet Goddess of Lower Egypt

"The Goddess Wadjet comes to you in the form of the living Uraeus to anoint you head with her flames."
- Book of the Dead

(Edjo or Uto, meaning 'green one')

Wadjet is the cobra Goddess of Buto in the Nile Delta, preserver of royal authority over Northern Egypt. Wadjet is represented as a cobra rearing up to strike any enemy of the king. She can also appear as a lioness in her role as 'Eye of Ra'. According to the Pyramid Texts, Wadjet was the creator of the Delta papyrus swamps.

Tutankhamun Mask

[Wadjet as Royal Cobra - Death mask of Tutankhamen Dynasty XVIII - Cairo Museum]

She is the Goddess of Lower Egypt and is symbolised as such by a title in the royal protocol. The title, Two Mistresses, stresses that the pharaoh is defended by the Goddess of Upper Egypt (Nekhbet) and the Goddess of Lower Egypt (Wadjet). The major Delta shrine, 'Per-nu', is under her protection.  According to the legend of the upbringing of the young Horus in Khemmis in the Delta, Wadjet is his nurse. She is also given the role as mother of the God Nefertum.

The God Heh

[The God Heh, God of Eternity seated on a sacred djeba, carrying rods of life and the ankh. He wears a solar disk, surmounted by cobras, the protectors of Lower Egypt and the kings of Egypt.]

The Royal Uraeus

The symbol of royal sovereignty is worn on the royal headdress and crown, the emblem of Wadjet rising up in anger about to spit flames in defence of the monarch. 
According to the Pyramid Texts, the God Geb gave the cobra to the king as legitimate holder of the throne of Egypt.

The sun god Re also wears the Uraeus which envelopes his solar dick within its coils, here Wadjet is Re's agent of annihilation, especially of the hostile snakes of the underworld which might threaten the sun god on his nightly journey.

Wadjet

[Carved Wadjet]

Nebti Name - He of the Two Ladies

The twofold community of Egypt, represented by the cobra Goddess Wadjet and the vulture Goddess Nekhbet.

The Nebti name, He of the Two Ladies, was used by Hor-Aha in the 1st Dynasty. The Two Ladies, the cobra and the vulture, are respectively the Goddess Wadjet of Buto in Lower Egypt and Nekhbet of Nekhen in Upper Egypt. Semerkhet included the Two Ladies as part of his honorific’s, but it is not until Dynasty XXII that the Nebti title became a standard part of the five-fold sequence of names.

Nebti Name

[Nebti Name]

The Colour Green (wadj)

The colour green is associated with Wadjet, the cobra goddess. Green represented the fertile fields and the resurrected Osiris and was a popular colour for amulets made from faience. The 'eye' amulet was called wadjet, meaning 'that which is healthy'.

Wadjet

[Wadjet wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt]

Fifth Nome of Lower Egypt (Sap-Meh - Northern Shield)

A nome (from Greek) was a sub-national administrative division of ancient Egypt, the Egyptian term was sepat. There were 20 nomes in Lower Egypt and 22 in Upper Egypt. The 5th Nome of Lower Egypt was the cult centre of Wadjet at Buto (Per-Wadjet).

Per-Nu - Lower Egyptian Shrine

The two shrines of Egypt, Per-wer (Great House) and Per-nu (Per-neser - 'Flame House') were both originally shrines, Per-wer was the shrine of the Goddess Nekhbet and Per-nu the shrine of the Goddess Wadjet. Their shrines came to represent the southern and northern parts of Egypt, which when combined represented the unified kingdom of Egypt.

The innermost shrine of Tutankhamen’s four shrines was constructed in the shape of a Per-nu shrine and features alternating Wadjet-eyes.

Festivals

Day 13 of Payni in the season of Shomu - Feast of Wadjet in Dep (27th April)
Day 11 of Dhwty in the season of Aket - The Going Forth of the Great Flame (29th July)
Day 1 of Phaophi in the season of Aket - Feat of Wadjet (18th August)
Day 2 of Athyr in the season of Aket - Return of Wadjet from Dep (18th September)
Day 10 of Mekhr in the season of Peyet - Going Forth of Wadjet-eye (25th Dec)


Bibliography

The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead - Raymond O Faulkner
A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - George Hart
The Egyptian Book of Days - Melusine Draco
Chronicle of the Pharaohs - Peter A Clayton
A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt - Margaret Bunson
The Egyptian Book of the Dead Abridged - EA Wallis Budge

Wadjet - Goddess of Lower Egypt Comments And Ratings

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Comments

Oh no cobras! But I managed to read to the end. Excellent stuff.

Posted by: wychiewoman on 23/09/2014 13:49:00

 

Thanks for writing this article and making it so interesting.
I found it so helpful. Thank you Blessings Reenie

Posted by: AgelessDancer on 25/09/2014 08:25:00

 

Stuffed full of info as usual... thanks Rye :-)

Posted by: taranova on 27/09/2014 14:12:00

 

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