After around c3400BC we begin to see a difference in the makeup of the organisation of Egypt. The small villages along the Nile and the Delta gradually over time develop into two distinct kingdoms.
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Naqada II - Lesson 2 - The White Goddess

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Monday, 21 January 2019

Naqada II

Naqada II

Naqada II

After around c3400BC we begin to see a difference in the makeup of the organisation of Egypt. The small villages along the Nile and the Delta gradually over time develop into two distinct kingdoms. The Chieftains of these different towns and villages presumably came into conflict with each other or came to agreements with each other, gradually banded together for greater protection and for the irrigation requirement of the Nile. They eventually became united into two distinct kingdoms.

Naqada II ArtefactsBurial Customs

From now onwards there is a marked difference between the ruling class and the rest of the population.

This new type of tomb is called a mastaba tomb, which is from the Arabic meaning bench or bench shaped. These mastaba tombs had a substructure underground with a brick lined chamber, and superstructure above ground which was built of mud brick and later built of stone; this represents the next stage in development from the early pit graves. The body is now placed in the substructure chamber, because the body is no longer packed around with sand, the body decomposes and you no longer find the natural mummies that occurred earlier. The ordinary people continued to be buried in pit graves.

The Hierarchy of the Gods

At first these isolated villages seemed to have their own gods or groups of gods, gradually a process of syncretism occured forming ever-larger groups.

During this period there is a lot of evidence for a supreme mother goddess, she was represented as a cow or sometimes in human form with a cow head or just the horns of the cow. She also has a consort, a young man that is both her son and lover. It is possible that this male god is the fertility god known in later times as Min. Their union rejuvenated the land, brought about the crops, made the people fertile and maybe helped individuals to be reborn again in the next world.

Animal Cults

Animal cults and cemeteries are also of major importance in this early period, yet we have very little information as too why they worshipped animals, yet it is a feature throughout the whole of Egyptian history. From the earliest animal cults to those of the Graeco-Roman period represents a 3000-year history of animal worship.

Double CrownDouble Crown
The Double Crown was a combination of the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt called shmty (The Two Powerful Ones).
It symbolised the joining of the two lands, and the pharaoh's control over the two lands.

Examples of Naqada II Artefacts

Top: Naqada II Vase, Combs
Middle Left: Tomb Scene, Wooden Staff, Astrological Cosmetic Palette
Middle Right: Gebel el-Arak Knife Handle, Macehead
Bottom: Naqada II Grave Reonstruction

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